Panchmarhi was declared as biosphere reserve and recognised under Man and Biosphere Program of UNESCO in 2009. This biosphere is in the Madhya Pradesh state of India and is equipped with environmental and esthetic values which enhance Human Well Being with its beauty.
The process of making a biosphere reserve is not a process that involves Indian Laws, regulations, or laws. However, India being a responsible nation does adhere to international rules, regulations, and guidelines for the betterment of Human society.
Though it was designated as an area of conservation in 1999 by the government of India.
It comprises an innermost and protected zone, in the case of India it would be a national park or wildlife sanctuary, or any protected area regulated thru the Wildlife protection act 1972. This protected area help and enrich the conservation effort for ecosystems, landscapes, species, and genetic variation and subsequently promote sustainable development.
Here human activities such as housing development, tourism, mining, etc are not allowed. These activities are strictly prohibited.
It is an area that surrounds or adjoins the core areas, acts as a cushion to protect the core areas of a Biosphere reserve, and is used for activities well-suited with sound ecological practices without disturbing the natural development.
Here activities such as scientific research, monitoring, training, and education are allowed and help in economic and cultural development in a sustainable way.
The transition area is an outer part of a Biosphere reserve as depicted in the infographic, where socio-culturally and ecologically sustainable economic and human activities are allowed to foster.
Here Settlements, managed forests, agricultural activities, and recreational and other economic activities are allowed to flourish.
Location of Panchmarhi biosphere reserve:
The panchmarhi Biosphere Reserve is located north of Chhindwara, southeastern of Bhopal, west of Kaanji Ghat, and east of Itarsi in the Satpura range covering an area of Narmadapuram, Chhindwara and Betul of Madhya Pradesh in central India.
It covers a geographical area of around 4,930 square Kilometers and includes three conservation units declared by the Government of India such as Wildlife and National Park.
These Conservation Units are as follows:
- Bori Sanctuary.
- Satpura National Park.
- Punchmarhi sanctuary.
Flora in Panchmarhi Biosphere Reserve:
The forests of Panchmarhi Biosphere Reserve are a combination of tropical moist and dry deciduous along with Indian Sub-tropical hills. It is primarily a transition Zone between Western Ghat and Eastern Ghat.
The climate of the region is dominated by monsoonal rain and the elevation of the Morphological landscape.
The main flora of the region is teak, wild mango, silver fern, jamun, etc. Fern, Wild mango, and silver fern are endemic to the region. One of the very important ingredients which is used in almost every Indian household is Chirounji found in this Biosphere Reserve.
The use of indigenous plants has been explored and studied by Pro. Chandra Prakash Kala
Fauna of Panchmarhi Biosphere Reserve:
The Biosphere reserve is the habitat for animals such as Tiger leopard Gaur, Chital, Samber Deer, and Wild Bear, and rhesus macaque etc found in tropical moist and dry deciduous forest.
The said biosphere reserve is inhabited by many endemic fauna such as Asian Wild Dogs, The Indian Wolf, Indian Giant Squirrels, Chinkara, and Flying Squirrels.
Reference. 1 UNESCO